The UN has called South Sudan the largest humanitarian crisis since 1945 with 6 million people facing starvation. It also faces the third largest refugee crisis after Iraq and Afghanistan with 1.8 million refugees, with a whopping 60% children.
Famine Phase 1: Eradication: It is very tragic that 60% of UN budget for South Sudan is still not funded. North-western and southern states such as facing starvation. The food and agricultural organization (FAO) has stated it still requires $100 million to mediate that crisis. Hence developed countries and UN bodies such as IMF and World Bank should fill these funding gaps because the right to food is one of the most basic rights and the international community has the foremost responsibility to uphold it.
Famine Phase 2: Empowerment: Simply eradicating famine would not be enough. Eradication is simply phase 1. Thus a new plan should be introduced under Phase 2 which is empowerment of South Sudanese people in areas where immediate famine has been avoided. Under this phase, FAO would provide these people with crop kits and fish kits so that they can provide their communities with food. South Sudan should also call for a regional body under UN’s World Food Programme. This body would connect farmers and fishermen to nearby markets in the state and also neighbouring countries such as Uganda and Ethiopia. The whole idea of this solution is to empower the people so they are not joining tribal armed forces.
Women’s rights: “No one shall be subjected to torture and sexual violence amounts to torture under the 1984 Convention Against Degradation. Given the widespread violations of women’s rights, it’s imperative that a specialized unit of UN peace troopers that patrol communities of women so that they do not face rape or any other kinds of abuse. This would effectively create a safer environment for women to live and work. The global community should also urge UNW to intervene and aid thousands of distressed women in the country.
Child Soldier’s Recruitment: One issue that is crucially important here is that of child soldier recruitment. As per UNICEF, approximately 15,000-16,000 child soldiers have been recruited and this number will keep on increasing. Child and youth protection units must be built inside resettlement and refugee camps that engage youth in educational opportunities. No school would be used for any military purpose by South Sudanese government forces.
Lack of accountability: A lack of liability can further raise tensions between ethnic groups and in the general South Sudanese community. An effective solution to this would “hybrid courts.” These courts are to be commissioned by the African Union and would consist of judges and lawyers from other African countries together with South Sudanese officials. The main goal of this court is to preserve evidence and protect witness while prosecuting war criminals.